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Instruments: Airspeeds

Velocity Speeds

Va

Maneuvering- the maximum used in turbulence - usually decreases as weight decreases. Stall will occur before there is structural damage.

Vfe

Top of the white arc - maximum for flaps extended

Vle

Landing gear extension - maximum

Vlo

Operation of landing gear - maximum

Vne

NEVER exceed speed! Red line

Vno

Top of the green arc - maximum structural cruising speed

Vref

Reference for final approach to landing usually 1.3 Vso

Vso

Stall with flaps and gear extended - bottom of white arc

Vs

Stall, gear and flaps up - minimum controllable airspeed

Vx

Best angle of climb - most altitude gain per distance traveled

Vy

Best rate of climb - best time to altitude

Vz

Normal climb - best for cooling and visibility.




MULTI-ENGINE SPEEDS

Vmc

Critical engine out - minimum controllable airspeed

Vsse

Minimum safe operations for single engine

Vxse

Best angle of climb for single engine

Vyse

Best rate of climb for single engine





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